Isaria Japonica Yusuda
Nevertheless, the natural fruiting bodies are expensive and scarce, the demand for Codyceps has been increased. Recently the artificial cultivation method of Isaria tenuipes or Paecilomyces tenuipes using living silkworm as the growth substrate was developed in Korea. It is also edible mushroom, typically cooked with chicken, as a medicinal repast, for restoring health. P.tenuipes possesses anti—cancer activity in vivo (Cho et al., 1999), significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (Shim et al., 2000) and also anti— diabetic effects . In addition, whereas Cordyceps militaris or
the Golden Cordyceps seems to be popular for treatment and health care, P.tenuipes or the Snowflake Cordyceps is found popular for using in cosmetics.
Hericium erinaceus (Lion's mane mushroom or Yamabushitake) is a mushroom that grows on old or dead broadleaf trees. It is taken as a food in Japan and China without harmful effect. Also, it has been used as traditional medicine in several Asian countries to treat various human diseases. Some studies show that H.erinaceus has certain active compounds that promote nerve growth factor expression. Then, some researchers prove that once a certain intake level of the mushroom is reached, it also has the possibility to reduce depression and anxiety. Moreover, several scientific studies have documented the medicinal or health beneficial effects of fruit bodies and mycelium of H. erinaceus mushroom and their chemical extracts, such as, antumorous and immunomodulating activities cardiovascular complications protecting activities, neuroprotective activities antioxidant activities and etc.
Antrodia camphorata (Syn. Antrodia cinnamomea) is a precious and unique edible fungus that originates from the forest of Taiwan. The mushroom is a fungal parasite on the inner cavity of the endemic species Cinnamomum Kanehirae (Bull camphor tree). The host plant is a large evergreen broad-leaved tree, which only grows in Taiwan, and is distributed over broad-leaved forests at an altitude of 200-2000m. In Taiwan, A. camphorata is called as "Niu-chang-chih" or "Chang-chih" or "Niu-chang-ku" or "Chang-ku".Locally, it is believed the A.camphorata is a present from heaven for Taiwanese and, is a well-known Chinese folk medicine and claimed "ruby in mushroom" in Taiwan. A.camphorata was historically used in Taiwan by the aborigines as a traditional prescription for the discomforts caused by alcohol drinking or exhaustion. In addition, it has long been used as a folk remedy for treating various diseases including liver diseases, food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, hypertension, abdominal pain, itchy skin and tumor.
Since wild-growing fruiting bodies of A. camphorata are very expensive and difficult to obtain, mycelium fermented in either liquid or solid-state cultures are becoming important commercial products.
The Cordyceps mushroom has a long history as medicinal fungi. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cordyceps hs been used to treat several conditions including cancers for thousands of years. Extracts from both mycelium and fruiting bodies of C.sinensis, C. militaris
The Cordyceps mushroom has a long history as medicinal fungi. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cordyceps hs been used to treat several conditions including cancers for thousands of years. Extracts from both mycelium and fruiting bodies of C.sinensis, C. militaris and other Cordyceps species showed significant anticancer activities by various mechanism. Some polysaccharide components and cordycepin have been isolated from C.sinensis and C. militaris, which acted as potent anticancer components. Moreover, Cordyceps mushrooms have been used to treat conditions including renal, liver, and cardiovascular diseases; hyposexuality and hyper-lipidemia. It is also used in the treatment of immune disorders and as an adjunct to modern cancer therapies (chemotherapy, radiation treatment and surgery). Cordyceps militaris (CM) is a well-known, traditional Chinese medicine that can be artificially cultivated on a large scale. Similar to Cordyceps sinensis (CS), an expensive, wild- fruiting species of Cordyceps, CM can be used to treat certain respiratory diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While CM has medicinal properties similar to CS, it is widely used as a substitute for CS in health supplements.
Beta-glucans are a large class of molecules, and oat, yeast, and mushroom beta-glucans are quite different from one another. When absorbed through the intestinal membranes, they awaken the immune system and give it a boost. From this point, mushrooms have a beneficiary effect on prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract, helping promote healthy bacteria. They are also adaptogens, substances that help the body cope during times of stress. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status to beta-glucans. From Halpern's viewpoint, beta-glucans can be extracted from other substances besides mushrooms, notably from algae, oats, wheat, and brewer's yeast, but mushrooms offer the greatest variety of beta-glucans (Halpern,2007,p.27).